Habitat Symbol Key:
W (Wet) - Usually saturated or wet, such as wetland or bottomland prairie.
WM (Wet Mesic) - Clay soils and/or soils excessively wet in spring and fall, drying out in summer.
M (Mesic) - Typical garden soil, good fertility and proper drainage. Species grow well in clay topsoil of southeastern Wisconsin.
DM (Dry Mesic) - Well-drained soil, sandy, silty, or rocky. Water drains readily, but not rapidly.
D (Dry) - Water drains rapidly. Does not retain moisture.
S (Sand) - Pure sand, may be sterile or unfertile soil, such as sand dunes and rock outcroppings. Many native Wisconsin species grow here.
Sav (Savannah) - Sparse trees provide shade for part of the day. Partial shade tolerance.
OW (Open Woods) - Grow in forest gaps where trees have fallen. Partial to full shade tolerance.
FE (Forest Edge) - Species grow along edge where forest meets open areas. Species tolerate partial shade, preferably indirect sunlight.
Pretreatment of Seed to Break Dormancy (For quicker germination):
All of our seed packets will say on the back side of the insert which, if any methods of pretreatment are needed. Some do not need any. Seed Mixes should be stratified and have inoculum (if needed) added. Scarification is difficult with mixes since they contain a variety of seeds. Only seed mixes that contain legumes need inoculum. There will be inoculum in your seed mix if it is neccessary. If seeds require multiple pretreatments; proceed in this order. Scarification (if required) is first. Then stratify is next. Then inoculum is added before seeding.
Stratify: Stratification is a process by which seed is faked into thinking it went through winter thus breaking its dormancy sooner. Stratification is not required but reccomended if you want seed to germinate sooner and is an ideal pretreatment if you are planting in spring or summer or early fall. If you are planting in late fall or early winter, stratification is not neccessary. Just let natural winter break the dormancy.
Combine a half a cup per seed packet or quart per seed mix of moist (NOT WET) clean growing medium (for example: sand) with the wildflower and grass seeds. Place the mixture in a zip lock bag or Tupperware container in your refrigerator (NOT FREEZER) for 6-8 weeks prior to planting. *NOTE: If your mix contains cover crop, do not put the cover crop in refrigerator. Set it aside and add into the mix prior to seeding.
Scarify (Seed Packets): Seeds that need scarification often have thick or hard outer casings that need to be penetrated to break dormancy. Packets will specify if a seed needs this method applied. Scarification scratches or cracks this casing to help break dormancy. For larger seeds, lightly nick the seed coat with a nail file to make the coat water permeable. For smaller seeds, gently roll between FINE grain sandpaper.
Inoculum: Legumes need to develop an association with the soil bacteria (Rhizobium) for better germination. Inoculating helps achieve this and ensures a much higher germination rate. If you scarify and stratify first add inoculum to seed/growing medium mix before tossing onto prepared soil. Then gently rake. If inoculating only, add inoculant to seed and shake to coat before seeding.
Site Preparation & Planting: Preparation of your ground is important to the success of your wildflowers. A garden that has been worked for some years should already be relatively weed-free. In the case of lawn sods or old abandoned farm fields, we recommend “over-seeding” without tilling. DO NOT TILL: Tilling brings additional dormant weed seeds to the surface to germinate. No-till preparation minimizes weed problems and erosion risk.
First, start by cutting and removing thatch or dead plant/lawn material. Second, when the area greens up with new growth, carefully and selectively spray unwanted vegetation with an herbicide (ex: Roundup). These two steps should be repeated a second time approximately 4 weeks later to ensure that unwanted vegetation has been killed.
Spreading Your Seed Mix: Mix pretreated seed mix with a gallon of clean weed-free compost (for example: Purple Cow or cranberry husks) before tossing over the planting site. Toss pretreated seed mix over prepared site then lightly rake in. You do not need to bury wildflower seeds.
Maintenance: When conditions are ideal your seedlings will germinate. If things are not right, wildflower seeds will wait until conditions are suitable. Be patient and do not disturb your soil for two seasons. Even though their roots will be very long, prairie seedlings are tiny when they first germinate.
The perennial native flowers will establish themselves over the first few years.
The best way to control weeds is BEFORE you plant/seed natives. Trying to pull weeds in a newly seeded planting will disturb the developing roots of wildflower seedlings. To minimize prairie seedling loss the first year, weeds should be cut off at or just below the soil surface rather than pulled out.
It is not necessary to water a new planting regularly. However, some moisture will help speed things along. DO NOT FERTILIZE! The wildflowers are adapted to garden conditions as they exist and fertilizer will make them too tall and gangly.
Why Natives Are Important:
(what was originally here before settlers)
VS. Horticultural Plants and Cultivars